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Asia > China > Beijing > Great Wall Of China > Useful Info
Submitted on Aug 11, 2020 Useful Info

Hike the Great Wall - 200 Passes of the Great Wall of China

From east to west, the Great Wall stretches thousands of miles, with 200 large and small passes. The Great Wall Adventure Club lists 200 Great Wall Passes worth hiking. Every pass is history. Perhaps we need to hike for a year to complete this feat. However, we don't necessarily need to hike this far, it is convenient to hike around Beijing from one day to 12 days.


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Jiayuguan Gansu Province is located in the throat of Hexi, with the Qilian Mountains in the south, and the rolling Mazong Mountains in the north. The terrain is very dangerous. It has been known as the first pass in Hexi since ancient times. Roads and main traffic routes for cultural exchanges between the East and the West. Jiayuguan is grand in scale and majestic. The whole building is composed of inner city, outer city, city wall and other parts. "There is a city in the city". It is a tragic and magnificent witness to the dispute and integration between the inland and the western regions, and the central plains and the desert.


Yumenguan Gansu Province is located in the north of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province. In order to resist the Huns, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty contacted the countries of the Western Regions, isolated Qiang and Hu, opened up east and west traffic, and built barriers and blocks in Hexi "four counties, according to two passes". In the sixth year of Yuanding (111 BC), from Lingju (now Yongdeng County, Gansu Province) to Jiuquan (now Jiuquan City, Gansu Province), Yuanfeng four years (before 107), from Jiuquan to Yumen Pass. Since 1979, the Gansu Provincial Cultural Relics Task Force has conducted a comprehensive survey of the Han Dynasty Fengsui site in Hexi, and excavated the Han Dynasty Fengsui site in Majuanwan, northwest of Dunhuang. In 1988, the State Council of the People's Republic of China announced it as a national key cultural relics protection unit.


Xigu City is located in Xigu District, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province. Today the city wall remains, intermittently connected, in a square shape. The city is the commercial and cultural center of Xigu District.


骆驼城 is located in Gaotai County, Gansu Province. It is one of the best-preserved castles of the Han Dynasty.


Wushaoling Hanming Great Wall Double Line is located in Tianzhu County, Gansu Province. Wushaoling is one of the famous mountains in the Qilian Mountains.


Great Wall of Han Dynasty is located in the eastern part of the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty. It was built in the third year of Han Yuanshou (the first 120 years). It was built with rammed earth slabs. Due to long-term natural weathering, it was basically destroyed.


Most of the Ming Great Wall is well preserved. It was built in the 27th year of the Wanli Reign of the Ming Dynasty (1599). The walls were built with rammed earth slabs, with a base width of 2.5 to 3 meters and a height of 2.5 to 6 meters.


Suoyang City is located in Anxi County, Gansu Province. It is a fortress on the ancient Silk Road from Jiuquan to Dunhuang, with dangerous terrain. The site of the city is located in the desert and is divided into two cities, the north and the south.


Yangguan is located 70 kilometers southwest of Dunhuang City, Gansu. "Persuade you to have a more glass of wine, and there is no reason to go to the west."


杀王坡 is located in Shawangpo, Lintao County, Gansu Province. This section of the Great Wall was used by the Emperor Qin Shihuang's Great Wall and was an important site of the Great Wall in early China.


Xiakou is located in Shandan County, Gansu Province. The Great Wall near Xiakoukou is well-preserved. The rammed-earth Great Wall and the tall rammed-earth pier stand beside the highway, which is very spectacular.


Toudunying is located in Wuwei City, Gansu Province. The ruins of the rammed-earth castle still exist. In the desert near the site, there are scattered red clay pots, gray pottery pieces, fine clay red pottery pieces, faience pieces and so on.


Zhangye City is located in Zhangye City, Gansu Province.


Cable Bridge Fort is located in Jingtai County, Gansu Province.


Lutangbao is located in Jingtai County, Gansu Province. It is now called Luyang. Many are destroyed. Although there are remnants of wall sites in some places, most of them have been destroyed into ridge-shaped rammed earth piles.


大jingcheng is located in Gulang County, Gansu Province. Now called Dajing. Most of the walls have collapsed, and the pile of soil is only 3 to 4 meters above the ground. After passing Zhujiawan to the Zhaojiadigou section, the rammed-earth city wall was severely weathered, and in some places it was only more than 1 meter above the ground.


Yanmen Pass, Shanxi Province, also known as Xixing Pass, is located 20 kilometers northwest of Daixian County and is collectively called the "Three Passes" with Ningwu Pass and Pian Pass.


Piantouguan Shanxi Province, the county seat of Pianguan in northwestern Shanxi, beside the Yellow River. Together with Ningwu Pass and Yanmen Pass, it is called the "Three Passes" because of its topography.


Pingxingguan East of Yanmenguan in Shanxi Province, Pingxingling under the border of the northeast of Fanzhi County, Shanxi Province and Lingqiu County, was called Pingxingzhai in ancient times.


古北口 Beijing Gubeikou Town is the northeast gate of the capital. The Beijing-Chengdu Highway runs through the entire territory. It is an important window for Beijing to Hebei, Inner Mongolia and other places. It has been known as the “gateway to Yanjing” and “the capital of Kyoto” since ancient times.


Xifengkou more than 50 kilometers northwest of Qianxi County, Hebei Province, is a dangerous town on the Great Wall of China. There have been wars here many times in history. Walk through the county, pass through Dachang, and pass through Malanyu. Xifengkou occupies the Luan River valley and the Great Wall intersects with the high mountains facing each other. It was one of the 32 important passes built by General Xu Da in the Yanshan Mountains in the early years of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty.


瓦桥关 Mashuikou, Xiong County, Hebei Province, at the foot of Langyan Mountain, Zhuolu County, Hebei Province. The buildings at Mashuikou Pass have been destroyed, and the Great Wall on both sides cascades up, winding along with the mountains, which is very spectacular. Most of the walls are masonry made of stones, half of them survived today.


Daomaguan Hebei Province Daomaguan is one of the three famous inner gates in the history of our country. Since ancient times, it has been a battleground for military strategists. Yang Liulang once guarded here, and kept the Liao soldiers thousands of miles away. Today, the old city wall has no one left, and the lonely city gate also shows a tragic color.


九门口 15 kilometers northeast of Shanhaiguan city. Jiumenkou, also known as a piece of stone. It was fully restored in 1992 and opened to visitors.


老龙头 an important part of Shanhaiguan tourist area.


Dongjiakou Northeast of Funing County, Hebei Province. The pass has now been destroyed, and the city of Guan has survived. Engraved with words such as "loyalty" and "retribution to the country".


Liujiakou Lulong County, Hebei Province. The city walls on both sides of the pass have been demolished, and the crossing buildings are still well preserved.


Malanguan Within Wanquan County, Hebei Province. The pass is now destroyed, but the Great Wall in the area around Guankou is still well preserved, with a height of about 5 meters.


Zhangjianlingguan Laiyuan County, Hebei Province. Today, Guancheng is severely damaged, the bricks on the east side of the city wall have been demolished, and the rammed earth wall still exists. Most of the hollow enemy buildings in the Great Wall under its jurisdiction are well preserved, with white marble plaques embedded on the front of the enemy buildings.


Jinshanling at the junction of Luanping County, Hebei Province and Miyun County, Beijing, was built in the early years of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty, and brickwork was built in the years of Longqing and Wanli. Enemy buildings are an important part of the Jinshanling Great Wall. More than 100 enemy buildings of various types have been built within 20 kilometers of the Great Wall. The restored Jinshanling Great Wall has become a tourist attraction of the Great Wall and has been listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit.


Dushikou North of Chicheng County, Hebei Province, is named after a lone rock rising from the ground at the pass.


Zhangjia kou Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province.


Mashikou Mashikou Village, Huaian County, Hebei Province. Today the defensive buildings at the pass have disappeared, and the nearby Great Wall is still rammed with loess.


Yangfangbaoguan Xuanhua County, Hebei Province. Most of the masonry was built with gravel, which have collapsed today. The pass has been destroyed, and there is Yangfangbao City 2 kilometers south of Guan.


Shuikouguan Huailai County, Hebei Province, was built during the Ming Longqing period. There is still a brick voucher arch in this pass. Except for a few places, most of them are better, and the stone crenels still exist in many places.


Zijingguan is located on the Zijing Ridge 15 kilometers west of Yixian City, at an altitude of 1080 meters, with Yunmeng Mountain in the east, Juma River in the north, and Kuannan Lake in the south. Zijingguan is known as the nine gates (Shanggu guan in the Qin and Han Dynasties, Yuzhuangguan in the Northern Wei Dynasty, Baibiguan in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, and Jinpoguan in the Song Dynasty).


Xuanhua City Ming Great Wall Xuanfu Town Zhencheng. Now the seat of the People's Government of Xuanhua City, Hebei Province, Xuanhua City has a long history. It has always been a military center in the north and is known as the "Northern Ancient City". In the 27th year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1394), based on the original Tucheng of Xuande Mansion, Xuanhua City was expanded to a size of about 12 kilometers. The existing city wall is about 10,000 meters long.


Santunying Santunying Township, Qianxi County, Hebei Province.


三道关 North Shanhaiguan, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province. Only the remains of the first pass can be identified. The second pass is the Zheng pass. The third pass is a barrier wall built horizontally with rocks in the valley for interception. The original wall is equipped with a stone arch. Now the arch has become a gap, but the wall still remains.


Da Maoshan Pass the junction of Funing County, Hebei Province and Suizhong County, Liaoning Province. Today, the gate has been completely destroyed, and only the ruins remain. The castle is still surviving, which is Damaoshan Village.


义院口 also known as Wankou, Funing County, Hebei Province. The Great Wall of China is strong, but it is severely damaged today. There are many thunder stones and stone cannons used to guard the Great Wall in Ming Dynasty in Banchangyu in the northeast of Yiyuankou and Huachangyu in the southwest.


Jielingkou Funing County, Hebei Province, named after the pass is located under the Jieling Mountain. Although Yuecheng has been damaged to varying degrees, its outline still remains.


Chongyukou Lulong County, Hebei Province, was built in the thirteenth year of Hongzhi (1500). Only in the north of Shangxinglongzhuang there are brick walls less than 100 meters intact.


Xu Liukou Qian'an County, Hebei Province. The slopes on both sides of the pass are relatively gentle, and the buildings at the pass have been destroyed. Although the city has been destroyed, the ruins still exist.


Lengkouguan 35 kilometers northeast of Qian’an County, Hebei Province, the bricks of the Guancheng city wall have been demolished, but the site of the rammed earth wall still shows the original scale of the building, and the brick archway of the south gate still exists.


Baiyangyuguan Qian'an County, Hebei Province. Except for the east wall, which is about 200 meters away, all the rest have been demolished.


Qingshanguan also known as Qingshankou Qianxi County, Hebei Province. There is a stone plaque on the forehead of the south gate inscribed in regular script: "Qingshanguan" in three large characters, and the inscription is "October in the second year of Wanli (1574), Jidan was founded". The Great Wall to the south of Qingshan Pass is brick-built and well-preserved.


Panjiakou was called Lulongzhai in ancient times. More than 60 kilometers north of Qianxi County, Hebei Province. Jinguan and Guancheng have been completely reduced to Panjiakou Reservoir.


Longjingguan Qianxi County, Hebei Province. The Great Wall to the southwest of Longjingguan is mostly stone structure, with strong masonry and good preservation. Most of the Great Wall to the east of Longjing Pass is stone-built, and the collapse is serious.


Hongshankou Zunhua County, Hebei Province. At present, the construction facilities of the pass have disappeared, and only the site of the pass remains.


上关 Zunhua, Hebei Province. Today the pass is completely submerged in the Shangguan Reservoir.


Changyukou Xuanhua County, Hebei Province. The construction facilities at the pass were completely destroyed, and only scattered rammed earth sites remained. About 3.5 kilometers south of the mouth, most of the castle today has been demolished, only part of the rammed earth wall remains.


Langwogoukou Within Wanquan County, Hebei Province. Langwogoukou is in the northwest of Zhangjiakou, close to the dam.


新河口 Within Wanquan County, Hebei Province. The collapse was severe and the Great Wall at the pass was completely destroyed; but the Great Wall in Yuershan was well preserved.


Baishikouguan Baishikou Village, Xiabeitou Township, Laiyuan County, Hebei Province. The south gate of Guancheng is on the west side of the river, which is well preserved and is still passable.


Futu Yuguan Laiyuan County, Hebei Province. The castle is now destroyed. Except for a few scattered ruins, they have all been destroyed.


Wulonggou Pass Laiyuan County, Hebei Province. Today, the gates of the city wall are well preserved. The south and west gates are surrounded by urn cities, with a plaque embedded in the front of the urn city gates. The horizontal script "Xujingmen" is engraved on the plaque of Nanwen, and the horizontal script "Zhenshuomen" is engraved on the plaque of West Wengcheng.


Feihukou Laiyuan, Hebei Province. The two walls of Feihukou are steep, with a slight connection and winding, and the situation is dangerous.


Xiangcheng Post the north section of Xichengyuan, Xiangcheng County, Henan Province, is in the shape of "匚".


Luyangguan Below Shiyang Mountain, Jiaokou Village, Lushan County, Henan, the ruins of the hilltop military castle are faintly visible. The building has been abandoned, and there are pottery, porcelain, and tile fragments scattered on the ground.


Ye Yi Guan is located in Jiuxian Town, Ye County, Henan Province. The remains of the city wall still remain, 3 meters high and more than 2,000 meters long.


缯关, also known as Daguankou and Xianwengguan, is located in Daguankou Village, Dushu Town, Fangcheng County, Henan Province. There are still earth-stone walls and relics of Yaosai on both sides of the hillside. The bronze ge and bronze arrowheads unearthed in 1981 are all artifacts of the Warring States Period and are a reliable basis for textual research on the Great Wall of Chu.


Yeniulingguan is located in Yeniuling, Tawan Village, Nanzhao County, Henan Province. The nearby pier is the remains of Chufang City.


Li Castle There is still a section of 200 meters long, 2.5 meters high, and 8 meters wide in Licheng Village, Neixiang County, Henan Province, as well as relics such as tiles and pottery.


Huangya Tianjin Widows Building in Ji County, Tianjin.


Hushan Great Wall Dandong Fushunguan is located in Dongqiandian Township, Fushun City, Liaoning Province. Today's Pass has been destroyed, and the site of Taibao remains. Fushun City, a city of thousands of households under the jurisdiction of Shenyang Zhongwei, was built during the Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty.


Yahu Pass is an important pass in Liaodong Town, Ming Great Wall, located in Weiziyu Township, southwest of Xinbin County, Liaoning Province. Also known as Sandaoguan.


Niuzhuangcheng Niuzhuang Town, Haicheng City, Liaoning Province.


Fenshuiguan, 15 kilometers north of Beining City, Liaoning Province. In the Qing Dynasty, it was renamed the tax-sharing customs. The city of Fenshuiguan has been destroyed. There are the Great Wall ruins along both sides of the Beigeguanmen ruins, and they reach the Yiwulu Mountain to the west. There are still stone beacon towers on the mountain.


Recommended Great Wall specialist: Great Wall Adventure Club


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