While visiting Petra and Wadi Rum as a day trip from Amman is not the best way to visit these places ( spare at least 3 days for these sites), here are some unique day trips that you can take from Amman.
The Dead sea
The Dead sea is only 65km away from Amman. Visiting the Dead sea as a day trip from Amman is also cheaper since accommodation in the resorts near the sea is expensive. Here is everything you need to know about visiting the Dead Sea.
Wadi Mujib Siq
Wadi Mujib Siq is part of the Wadi Mujib, Jordan's Grand Canyon located 2 hours from Amman. Wadi Mujib Siq a water hiking trail and is the most thrilling area of the Wadi Mujib, especially for adventurous travelers. The river in the gorge is about 1km long and ends in a small waterfall. This river is always flowing all year long but the trail is typically closed during winter and in spring in case rainfall is heavy. Activities to do at Wadi Mujib Siq include hiking, swimming, hiking, and canoeing. There's no direct bus or mini busses to Wadi Mujib, you have to connect from Amman- Dead Sea- Wadi Mujib, hire a taxi, or join a tour. In case you're not in a tour you'll find local guides at the entrance who'll take you around for a fraction of the cost. The Wadi Mujib is only a few minutes drive from the Dead Sea. Close to the entrance of the Wadi Mujib next to the visitor center is the Wadi Mujib chalets a collection of 15 double rooms that have some of the best views of the Dead Sea. While the hiking trail may be closed during winter the Wadi Mujib chalets are open throughout.
Madaba is a city 30km south of Amman and is famous for its Byzantine-era mosaics and the church of the apostles. This city is off the King's highway along the way to Petra.
Mount Nebo is an area of religious significance as it is believed to be the place where Moses saw the Holy lands. On a clear day, you get good views of the Dead Sea, the Jordan River, Jericho, the West Bank, and Jerusalem. There's also a Franciscan monastery in the mountain. The entry fee is 1JD.
Mount is only 10km west of Madaba and about 30km from Amman.