Last year I finally came to visit Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an. The magnificent antique buildings here, the unprecedented scale of terracotta warriors and horses pits, thousands of burial objects of pottery warriors in various poses and spirits, and various warrior, war horses, and bronze carriages and horses the same size as real horses. , Lifelike, deeply shocked my soul.
Here I will tell you about the most important Pit 1 in this museum. This is why this pit is the most crowded. Great Wall Adventure Club has sent me a very knowledgeable and passionate tour guide, along with a private car to make this trip possible with a super experience.
The Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang is located in the east of Lintong County, 37 kilometers away from Xi'an, with Li Mountain to the south and Weishui to the north. Dao is a national key cultural relics protection unit. In 1974, three large burial pits of terracotta warriors and horses were discovered in the east of the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin, and they were excavated and built for protection. The three pits have finished fonts with a total area of 22,780 square meters. There are about 7,400 pottery horses the size of a real horse. The three pits were named pits No. 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
Pit 1 of the Museum
Pit No. 1 is the largest with a depth of 5 meters and an area of 14,260 square meters. There are more than 6000 pottery horses in the pit, arranged in a circular square in an orderly manner. At the east end of the pit, there are three rows of warrior figurines, holding long-range weapons like bows and crossbows, which seem to be forward troops, followed by the main force of 6000 armor figurines, holding spears, halberds and other long weapons, fighting with 35 horses. The cars are arranged in a 38-way column in 11 passing holes. Defenders on the north and south wings.
The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit No. 2 is curved in plan and covers an area of 6000 square meters. It is a large army formation composed of cavalry, infantry, crossbowmen and chariots sitting west to east. It can be roughly divided into four relatively independent units: crossbow and terracotta warriors phalanx, horse chariot phalanx, chariot and cavalry terracotta warriors mixed with rectangular array, and cavalry terracotta warriors square. There are more than 1,300 pottery figurines and horses, more than 80 chariots, and a large number of metal weapons.
Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit No. 3 has a concave shape with an area of about 520 square meters. It is an organic whole with Pit No. 1 and No. 2. It seems to be the headquarters of the three armies. 68 pottery warriors and 4 horses and 1 cart were unearthed. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum of the First Qin Emperor is the largest ancient military museum in China. The formation of the figurines has been a sensation after the discovery and opening up to the outside world. In 1978, the former French Prime Minister Chirac said after a visit: "There are seven wonders in the world. The discovery of the Terracotta Warriors can be said to be the Eight Wonders. If you don’t look at the pyramids, you don’t count Egypt, and you don’t see the Terracotta Warriors. China. "Since then, the Terracotta Warriors have been hailed as the eighth wonder of the world".
Terracotta warriors and horses are mostly made by combining pottery and smelting. The first tire is made with a pottery mold and then covered with a layer of fine mud for processing and engraving. Some are burned first and then connected, and some are burned first. In fact, each of the terracotta warriors and horses back then had bright and harmonious paintings. During the excavation process, we found that some pottery figures still retained their bright colors when they were first unearthed. After being unearthed, the color gradually fell off due to the dry air. All you can see now is the remaining traces of the painted painting. The chariots, infantry, and cavalry of the terracotta warriors and horses formed various formations. The overall style is strong, healthy and refined. If you look closely, there are differences in face shape, hairstyle, posture, and charm: some Tao Ma has his ears erect, some neighs with his mouth open, and some stands still. All these terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang are rich in artistic charm.
The burial pit of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang (in one case, the Empress Dowager) is the world's largest underground military museum. The pits have a reasonable layout and a unique structure. At the bottom of the pit about 5 meters deep, an east-west bearing wall is erected every 3 meters. The terracotta warriors and horses are arranged in the gap between the walls. There are 3 terracotta warriors and horses pits in the Qin Mausoleum, arranged in the shape of a product. Qin Shihuang's No. 1 figurine pit is rectangular, 230 meters long from east to west, 62 meters wide from north to south, and about 5 meters deep. It has a total area of 14,260 square meters and has sloped doorways on all sides. The most among the pits are the warrior figurines, about 1.7 meters tall, and the tallest is 1.9 meters. The Taoma is about 1.5 meters high and about 2 meters long. The chariot is the same size as a utility vehicle. People, carriages and military formations are artistic reproductions through realistic techniques. Most of the Qin warriors held bronze weapons, including bows, crossbows, arrowheads, beryllium, spears, ge, pan, sword, machete and yue. Bronze weapons have been buried in the ground for more than two thousand years due to anti-rust treatment. They are still as bright and sharp as new. They were actual combat weapons at the time. They were dressed in fine armor with colored threads on their chests. There are more military officials wearing long crowns than generals. There are differences in the shape, fatness, facial expression, eyebrows, eyes and age of the Qin figurines.
After the unification of the six countries, the Qin State implemented a national conscription system. The source of troops came from all over the country. This is probably the main reason for their differences in face shape, expression, and age. The craftsmen use realistic artistic techniques to express them very realistically. This huge group of Terracotta Warriors contains many obviously different individuals, making the whole group more active, real and full of life. Throughout these thousands of warriors and soldiers, their sculpture art achievements have completely reached the height of a kind of artistic beauty. Whether it is the image of the thousands of officers and soldiers with both form and spirit, or the eager war horses, they are not mechanical imitations, but strive to show their "inner anger, emotional soul, vigor and spirit." Most of the pottery figurines. The images are full of personality characteristics, appear lifelike, natural and full of life. The discovery of the pit of warriors is complete, and the unprecedented number of bronze weapons has greatly enriched the research field of Qin weapons. Among them, the long beryllium and the golden hook are the first discoveries in the history of weapon archaeology. The discovery and research of the standardized technology of weapon casting and the anticorrosive treatment technology of weapon surface filled the gaps in the history of ancient science and technology. In order to reproduce the majestic momentum of the Qin army’s “fighting a million” qi swallowing mountains and rivers 2000 years ago, the designers of the Qin warriors not only pursued the height of a single pottery figure, but also meticulously designed a figure of more than 8,000 pieces. The figurines constitute a large-scale military formation system. On the right is a huge square array, on the front left is a large sparse array, and on the rear left is the command headquarters. Thousands of warriors holding weapons, hundreds of horses hauling carts, line by line, formed a magnificent and majestic lineup. Some wore their heads in a bun, wore a battle robe, full boots, and held a bow and crossbow, seeming to be a sharp warrior. , Seem to be witty archers; some wear soft hats, gowns and armours, stand on the square mouth and shallow shoes, and hold long beryllium, seeming to be short-armed soldiers.
There are also knights who wear a Hu uniform, armor, a soft hat on the head, short boots, and a horse with one hand and a bow; they have a long crown with a head, arms stretched forward, hands holding a bun, skilled mistresses; yes Wearing a long crown, wearing a battle robe, wearing a long armor, and holding an unhooked lower-level commander; there is a general who wears a scorpion crown, dressed in colorful fish scales, holding a sword with both hands, and extraordinary bearing. This life-like image of hundreds of officers and soldiers, especially in the portrayal of demeanor and personality, looks lifelike, natural, and full of life. Such as the image of the generals: a burly figure, a double short brown, colored fish scales, a double curly tail and a long crown on the head, standing tall, standing tall, with extraordinary demeanor and majestic charm. The look of an ordinary warrior: some have their lips curled up, and they seem to be angered inside; some have round eyebrows, and the muscles between the eyebrows are twisted into lumps, seeming to have superhuman courage; some have thick eyebrows, big eyes and broad eyes. Thick lips, simple and simple personality; some have nice eyebrows, a slightly lowered head, and an elegant personality; some have their eyes concentrating, alert and keen; some have their heads up and meditative, some have their heads down and thoughtful, although you have to portray one of the two The word "think", due to different expressions, the former gives people the impression of being aloof and arrogant, while the latter is quiet and elegant. The Qin warriors represented ancient military themes.
They did not choose the scenes of war between two sides and soldiers fighting, nor did they choose the scenes of soldiers repairing and defending. Instead, they captured the battle scenes of soldiers in armor, standing in front of them, and waiting in battle. Although I am in this well-organized and static camp, the artists still strive to "actually and quietly" in the sculpture of a single pottery figurine. Make the sharp armored warrior figurines raise their eyebrows, stand solemnly, with a firm and brave expression, they seem to be ready to go, and they seem to be in a state of battle, and there are those prince figurines driving cars with their arms stretched out, Holding the bun rope tightly, looking ahead, waiting for orders; the horses that are pulling the cart, the ears are erect, the eyes are wide, the nose is neighing, and they are eager to try; the knight figurines, the right hand holding the horse, the left hand Raise the bow, stand alertly in front of the horse, and once the order is given, it will gallop across the battlefield. It is these thousands of pottery figurines full of vitality and different expressions that constitute the overall static military position, which achieves an unexpected artistic effect. "The quieter is more vivid, the more quiet the more dynamic". Only this static military formation can make people feel the unpredictable depth of the great deterrence of the military formation. Such a magnificent array and magnificent composition are unprecedented and unparalleled.
In the No. 1 big pit, thousands of terracotta warriors and horses are neatly arranged. They are all tall, generally around 1.80 meters, with different shapes and realistic expressions. It fully embodies the superb sculpture technology level of the ancient working people. Seeing this large-scale military formation, I couldn't help but imagine the mighty and mighty Qin army that swept the six countries more than 2000 years ago and was invincible and unified China.
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Terracotta Warriors Tour from Beijing, from Shanghai, or from Tianjin.