We look back at most of the ancient history of China, when the imperial dynasty was at its peak, almost always capitalized on Chang'an, and whenever it moved east, it was the day of the decline of the imperial dynasty.
In today's environment, Chang'an's rise was due to its geography, and so was its fall.
Xi'an still has many problems, and it seems that the dishonorable name of "abandoned capital" will follow Xi'an for a long time.
We shouldn't exaggerate the greatness of the past, as it is now up to us to build it for generations to come.
The Eighth Wonder of the World Tour - Terracotta Warriors
Before we entered the terracotta warriors pit we visited the museum and learned about the background history of the construction of the Qin Museum, walking in front of us is the "shield" of the Qin dynasty is the most famous "bronze carriage and horse" model, it is not only the bronze carriage and horse, this work of art is not only the "shield" of the Qin dynasty. The real value lies in the fact that it reflects the high level of craft production in the Qin Dynasty. At the same time, it is the earliest, largest and most completely preserved bronze carriages and horses found, which is of great historical value for the study of ancient Chinese carriage and horse system, carving art and smelting technology. A copper carriage alone reflects the casting technology, really let everyone sigh incessantly.
In March 1974, the villagers of Xiyang village, east of the mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin, discovered the Terracotta Warriors and Horses pit in a drought-proof area between Xihe and Wulua villages, three miles east of the mausoleum. On October 1, 2010, the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum of the First Emperor of Qin began to exhibit to domestic and foreign visitors.
In 1980, in a burial pit 20 meters to the west of the sealed soil of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum in Lintong, Shaanxi Province, China, two large burial bronze carriages and horses were unearthed, one in front and one behind the other. After restoration, they were about one-half the size of the real horses. They were made in the late period of the tomb's construction, before 210 BC. The main body of the carriage was made of bronze, some parts were made of gold and silver ornaments, and each part was casted separately. Craftsmen of the Qin dynasty successfully used various techniques such as casting, welding, inlaying, pin jointing, live hinge connection, mother-of-pearl buckle connection, pivot connection, etc., and combined them perfectly as a whole. "Crown of Bronze".
The national treasure has undergone the painstaking efforts of heritage conservation and restoration personnel, and finally took eight years to complete the restoration.
The opinion of No. 1 car was horizontal and rectangular, with the two front corners smoothed and arched. The basic structure is based on four thicker carriages around the base of the carriage, with the carriages standing on top of the wheel and an appendix as the base of the carriage. There is an umbrella in the cart, which consists of the umbrella seat, umbrella handle, umbrella cover and other parts.
After leaving the museum pavilion, we came to the most famous terracotta pit No. 1 in the Qin Museum, which is magnificent because there are more terracotta warriors unearthed than the other two. The arrangement of terracotta warriors is 3 columns of horizontal line facing east, each column has 70 warrior terracotta warriors, 210 in total, seemingly as the vanguard of the military formation. The next step is the infantry and chariot is the 38 road column, each road is about 180 meters long, seems to be the main body of the military formation. The left and right sides each have a column divided into the south and north side of the horizontal line, each team has about 180 warrior figurines, seems to be the two wings of the military formation. The west end has a row of west-facing warrior terracotta warriors, seems to be the rear guard of the military formation. The terracotta warrior figurines peng wearing war robes, some wearing armor, hand held bronze weapons, are physical. The organization was tight, and the team was tidy. Dozens of horses were neighing with their heads held high, saving their hooves to move. The entire army was in a state of readiness. The majestic military formation reproduced the military achievements and military might that Qin Shihuang had displayed to complete the unification of China. The atmosphere was so great that millions of people who came to visit were shaken.
The discovery was made on March 29, 1974, by farmers from Xiyang village while they were digging a well. The work started very smoothly, but two days later, they encountered a layer of rock-hard soil, and when they dug to about 3 meters, they found a thick layer of red soil. "It's what's now known as a sacrificial pottery statue, and that's how it was unearthed, and it's said that if it was more than a few centimeters out, it would have been lost to the terracotta warriors we see now.
Pit 1 (largest, first excavated, largest number of terracotta figures)
The first pit is an east-west rectangular underground civil engineering structure, 230 meters long and 62 meters wide, with a total area of 14,260 square meters, surrounded by five doorways. There are galleries at the east and west ends of the pit, the north and south sides of each side of the gallery, the middle of nine east-west over the hole, over the hole between the interval of rammed earth walls. This pit to car soldiers as the main body, car, infantry into a rectangular joint formation. The main body of the military formation faces east, in the south, north and west corridor each row of warriors facing outward, as a protective wing and rear guard; three rows of warriors in the east for the vanguard. In each of the nine holes, there are four rows of warriors, some in battle robes, some in armor, with chariots in the middle, one goban and two charioteers behind each chariot. Between 1978 and 1984, the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology's Qin Terracotta Warriors Archaeological Team excavated Pit No. 1, covering an area of 2,000 square meters, unearthed 1,087 pieces of terracotta figurines, and repaired and reset some of them. More than 1,000 of them have been cleared. The shape found underground is so large, so many and so realistic. The terracotta warriors and horses are created on the basis of real life, and the artistic technique is delicate and bright. The terracotta costumes and attitudes are all different. There are many kinds of hair styles alone, different gestures, and even different facial expressions. From their outfits, expressions and gestures, you can tell if they are officers or soldiers, infantry or cavalry. There were long-standing veterans with beards as well as youths new to the battlefield. The 1.96-meter tall General Terracotta, towering upright and contemplative, reveals a look of steadfastness and power. The warrior figurine, with his head slightly raised and his eyes looking straight ahead, appears to be full of vigor and a bit naive. The posture of the warrior wearing a shovel armor, holding a long yoke in his right hand and pressing the cart with his left hand, shows that he is the figurine of a defending cart driver.
There is a strange phenomenon in the Terracotta Warriors and Horses pit No. 1: the earthen partition walls in the pit are not as tall as the terracotta warriors and horses arranged in the cave.
The first Qin terracotta warriors and horses museum display department director Guo Xiangdong said, when the terracotta warriors and horses pit was first built, the earthen partition wall was higher than the terracotta warriors. There are earthen partition walls in Terracotta Warriors of Qin pit one and pit two. This is a great way to get the most out of your time and money. The purpose of the earthen partition walls is to divide the interior of the terracotta pits into holes. The width of the earthen partition walls in the first terracotta pit is 2.5 meters, and the width of the earthen partition walls in the second terracotta pit is between 1.6 meters and 3.2 meters. The initial height of these earthen partition walls are 3.2 meters, completely over the height of the terracotta figurines in the middle of the hole, so that, when the underground tunnels type of civil structure was formed.
The first time the terracotta warriors and horses were burnt was when the terracotta warriors and horses were burnt, and the second time the terracotta warriors and horses were burnt was when the terracotta warriors and horses were burnt. The terracotta warriors and horses pit before the burning and collapse of the terracotta warriors and horses pit, a large amount of water inside the terracotta warriors and horses pit, soaked the lower part of the earthen partition wall, due to the heavy pressure of the scaffolding wood and soil layer above the partition wall, the partition wall partial collapse, plus later on the fire burning, making the top of the pit collapse, more than 2,000 years of soil pressure, the terracotta warriors and horses pit completely flattened. So, when we excavate the terracotta warrior pit today, after repairing the terracotta figures standing and placing them, there is the phenomenon of the earthen partition wall being lower than the height of the terracotta figures.
Pit 2 and 3 of the Terracotta Warriors
The first time I saw it, I was in the midst of a big crowd, and it was the first time I saw it. It's a good idea to have a good time with your family. Unfortunately, for multiple reasons, we only saw a small portion of it. The museum told us all sorts of stories about the terracotta warriors, and we couldn't help but admire the grandeur of the spectacle.
After No. 1 and No. 2 Terracotta Warriors and Horses pit, on May 11, 1976, another burial pit was drilled and found 25 meters north of the west end of No. 1 pit, which was numbered No. 3 according to the order of discovery.
Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the First Emperor of Qin is located in the north of the west end of Pit 1, opposite to the east and west of Pit 2, 25 meters south of Pit 1, 120 meters east of Pit 2, with an area of about 520 square meters, the whole is concave, consisting of the north and south rooms and carriage room, in which there is a team of chariots and four pieces of terracotta warriors and horses, a total of 68 terracotta warriors and horses can be unearthed in Pit 3. From the internal layout of Pit 3, it should be the headquarters of Pit 1 and 2. Pit 3 is the only one among the three pits that has not been burned by fire, so there are more painted remains of terracotta figurines with brighter colors when they were unearthed. In wars before the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, commanding generals often had to lead the charge, so they often had to be located before the pawns. During the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, as the scale of warfare increased and the mode of fighting changed, the position of the commander began to move to the center of the army. In the Qin Dynasty war, the command department was independent from the middle army, which was a major step forward in the development of military tactics. The command department was independent to study the formulation of rigorous combat plans, and more importantly, the commanding general's personal safety was further guaranteed. This is an important symbol of the maturity of the ancient military tactical development. The third Qin pit is the earliest image material of military command in the world archaeological history. The architectural structure, terracotta figurine arrangement, weaponry equipment and excavated relics all have certain characteristics. It provides valuable information for the study of the ancient command structure, divination and battle rituals, the system of commanding generals and the costumes and equipment of the battle uniforms.
In the wee hours of the morning, in the drizzle on the journey home, the day is not yet dawn, reluctantly farewelled the city, and completed another destination trip, thanks to these landscapes I met in Xian, thanks to the people I met, perhaps travel is not how much you see along the way, nor is it whether you reach the desired destination, but rather the kind of change of mind and rich experience during your trip. I'll be back next time to complete my regrets from this trip, I loved the cultural landscape and the rustic mountains.
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- Great Wall Adventure Club
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